Friday, July 19, 2024

The Second Developer Preview of Android 15

The Second Developer Preview of Android 15

Posted by Dave Burke, VP of Engineering

Android 14 logo

At this time marks the second chapter of the Android 15 story with the discharge of Android 15 Developer Preview 2!

Android 15 continues our work to construct a platform that helps enhance your productiveness whereas providing you with new capabilities to supply superior media and AI experiences, reap the benefits of machine kind elements, reduce battery impression, maximize easy app efficiency, and defend consumer privateness and safety, all on essentially the most various lineup of units on the market.

Android continues so as to add options enabling your apps to reap the benefits of premium machine {hardware}, together with the most recent telecommunications options, high-end media capabilities, dazzling shows, foldable/filppable kind elements, and AI processing.

Your suggestions on the Android 15 Developer Preview and Beta program performs a key position in serving to Android constantly enhance. The Android 15 developer website has extra details about the preview, together with downloads for Pixel and detailed documentation about adjustments. This preview is only the start, and we’ll have heaps extra to share as we transfer via the discharge cycle. Thanks upfront in your help make Android a platform that works for everybody.

Updating Android communications

Android 15 updates the platform to provide your app entry to the most recent advances in communication.

Satellite tv for pc assist

Android 15 continues to increase platform assist for satellite tv for pc connectivity and contains some UI parts to make sure a constant consumer expertise throughout the satellite tv for pc connectivity panorama.

screen schot of a mobile Android device showing notification when device connects to satellite

Notification when machine connects to satellite tv for pc

Apps can use ServiceState.isUsingNonTerrestrialNetwork() to detect when a tool is related to a satellite tv for pc, giving them extra consciousness of why full community providers could also be unavailable. Moreover, Android 15 supplies assist for SMS/ MMS functions in addition to preloaded RCS functions to make use of satellite tv for pc connectivity for sending and receiving messages.

Smoother NFC experiences

Android 15 is working to make the faucet to pay expertise extra seamless and dependable whereas persevering with to assist Android’s sturdy NFC app ecosystem. On supported units, apps can request the NfcAdapter enter observe mode, the place the machine will pay attention however not reply to NFC readers, sending the app’s NFC service PollingFrame objects to course of. The PollingFrame objects

can be utilized to auth forward of the primary communication to the NFC reader, permitting for a one faucet transaction in lots of instances.

Developer productiveness

Whereas most of our work to enhance your productiveness facilities round instruments like Android Studio, Jetpack Compose, and the Android Jetpack libraries, we at all times search for methods within the platform that will help you extra simply understand your imaginative and prescient.

PDF Enhancements

screen schot of a mobile Android device showing search enabled for PDF files

Allow looking out embedded PDF recordsdata with updates to PdfRenderer

Android 15 Developer Preview 2 contains an early preview of considerable enhancements to the PdfRenderer APIs, giving apps capabilities to include superior options similar to rendering password-protected recordsdata, annotations, kind enhancing, looking out, and choice with copy. Linearized PDF optimizations are supported to hurry native PDF viewing and scale back useful resource use.

The PdfRenderer has been moved to a module that may be up to date utilizing Google Play system updates impartial of the platform launch, and we’re supporting these adjustments again to Android R by making a suitable pre-Android 15 model of the API floor, referred to as PdfRendererPreV.

We worth your suggestions on the enhancements we have made to the PdfRenderer API floor, and we plan to make it a lot simpler to include these APIs into your app with an upcoming Android Jetpack library. Keep tuned.

Computerized language switching refinements

Android 14 added on-device multi-language audio recognition with automated switching between languages, however this will trigger phrases to get dropped, particularly when languages swap with much less of a pause between the 2 utterances. Android 15 has added extra controls to permit apps to assist tune this switching for his or her use case. EXTRA_LANGUAGE_SWITCH_INITIAL_ACTIVE_DURATION_TIME_MILLIS confines the automated switching to the start of the audio session, whereas EXTRA_LANGUAGE_SWITCH_MATCH_SWITCHES deactivates the language switching after an outlined variety of switches. This generally is a helpful refinement, notably if the expectation is that there might be a single language spoken in the course of the session that ought to be autodetected.

Granular line break controls

Beginning in Android 15, the TextView and the underlying line breaker can protect the given portion of textual content in the identical line to enhance readability. You may reap the benefits of this line break customization through the use of the <nobreak> tag in string assets or createNoBreakSpan. Equally, you may protect phrases from hyphenation through the use of the <nohyphen> tag or createNoHyphenationSpan.

Examples and screenshots:

    <string title="pixel8pro">The ability and brains behind Pixel 8 Professional.</string>

text reads: The power and brains behind Pixel 8 Pro.

    <string title="pixel8pro">The ability and brains behind <nobreak>Pixel 8 Professional.</nobreak></string>

text reads: The power and brains behind Pixel 8 Pro.

Expanded IntentFilter Performance

Android 15 builds-in assist for extra exact Intent decision via UriRelativeFilterGroup, which include a set of UriRelativeFilter objects that kind a set of Intent matching guidelines that should every be glad, together with URL question parameters, URL fragments, and blocking/exclusion guidelines. This helps functions higher sustain with the dynamic calls for of web-hosted deep hyperlinks.

These guidelines might be outlined within the AndroidManifest with the brand new <uri-relative-filter-group> tag which might optionally embrace an android:enable tag. These tags can include tags that use current knowledge tag attributes in addition to the new android:question and android:fragment attributes.

An instance of the AndroidManifest syntax that might be supported:

  <motion android:title="android.intent.motion.VIEW" />
  <class android:title="android.intent.class.BROWSABLE" />
  <knowledge android:scheme="http" />
  <knowledge android:scheme="https" />
  <knowledge android:area="" />
    <knowledge android:pathPrefix="/auth" />
    <knowledge android:question="area=na" />
  <uri-relative-filter-group android:enable="false">
    <knowledge android:pathPrefix="/auth" />
    <knowledge android:question="mobileoptout=true" />
  <uri-relative-filter-group android:enable="false">
    <knowledge android:pathPrefix="/auth" />
    <knowledge android:fragmentPrefix="faq" />

Extra OpenJDK API assist

Android 15 continues so as to add OpenJDK APIs. Developer Preview 2 contains assist for extra math/strictmath strategies, plenty of util updates together with sequenced assortment/map/set, ByteBuffer assist in Deflater, and safety key updates. These APIs are up to date on over a billion units operating Android 12+ via Android 15 via Google Play System updates so you may goal the most recent programming options.

Giving your app extra flexibility on extra screens

Android 15 offers your apps the assist to get essentially the most out of Android’s kind elements, together with massive screens, flippables, and foldables.

Cowl display screen assist

Your app can declare a property that Android 15 makes use of to permit your Utility or Exercise to be introduced on the small cowl screens of supported flippable units. These screens are too small to be thought of as suitable targets for Android apps to run on, however your app can opt-in to supporting them, making your app out there in additional locations.

A extra non-public, safe Android

We’re at all times seeking to give customers extra transparency and management over their knowledge whereas enhancing the core safety features of the platform.

Display screen file detection

Android 15 provides assist for apps to detect that they’re being recorded. A callback is invoked at any time when the app transitions between being seen or invisible inside a display screen recording. (An app is taken into account seen if actions owned by the registering course of’s UID are being recorded.) This manner, in case your app is performing a delicate operation, you may inform the consumer that they are being recorded.

val mCallback = Client<Int> { state ->
    // we're being recorded
  } else {
    // we’re not being recorded

override enjoyable onStart() {
   val initialState =
      windowManager.addScreenRecordingCallback(mainExecutor, mCallback)
   mCallback.settle for(initialState)

override enjoyable onStop() {

Making Android extra environment friendly

We’re introducing new APIs that may aid you collect insights about your apps, persevering with to optimize the best way background functions work, and offering APIs to assist make duties in your app extra environment friendly to execute.

ApplicationStartInfo API

App startup on Android has at all times been a little bit of a thriller. There was no simple strategy to know inside your app whether or not it began from a chilly, heat, or sizzling state. It was troublesome to understand how lengthy your app spent in the course of the varied launch phases: forking the method, calling onCreate, drawing the primary body, and extra. When your utility class was instantiated, you had no means of figuring out whether or not the app began from a broadcast, a content material supplier, a job, a backup, boot full, an alarm, or an Exercise.

The ApplicationStartInfo API on Android 15 offers you all of this and extra. You may even select so as to add your individual timestamps into the move to make it simple to gather timing knowledge in a single place. Along with accumulating metrics, you should use ApplicationStartInfo to assist immediately optimize app startup; for instance, you may eradicate the pricey instantiation of UI-related libraries inside your Utility class when your app is beginning up because of a broadcast.

Modifications to package deal stopped state

Android 15 contains a number of enhancements to the PackageManager’s Stopped State. Apps which are in a Stopped State ought to solely be leaving this state via direct consumer motion. Moreover, apps getting into the Stopped State could have their PendingIntents eliminated. To assist builders re-register their pending intents, apps will now obtain the BOOT_COMPLETED broadcast as soon as they’re faraway from the Stopped State. Lastly, the brand new ApplicationStartInfo can even embrace the ApplicationStartInfo.wasForceStopped() to let builders know that their app was put into the Stopped State.

Detailed app dimension data

Android has supplied an API, StorageStats.getAppBytes(), that summarizes the put in dimension of an app as a single variety of bytes, which is a sum of the APK dimension, the scale of recordsdata extracted from the APK, and recordsdata that have been generated on the machine similar to ahead-of-time (AOT) compiled code. This quantity just isn’t very insightful by way of how your app is utilizing storage.

Android 15 provides the StorageStats.getAppBytesByDataType([type]) API, which lets you get perception into how your app is utilizing up all that house, together with apk file splits, AOT and speedup associated code, dex metadata, libraries, and guided profiles.

Modifications to foreground providers

Android 14 started requiring Foreground Service Varieties. The documentation mentions that the dataSync Foreground Service sort might be deprecated in a future model of Android.

To assist migrating away from the dataSync Foreground Service sort, Android 15 contains the mediaProcessing Foreground Service sort, which is used to carry out time-consuming operations on media property, like changing media to totally different codecs. In a future Beta launch, this service could have a runtime restrict of 6 hours.

SQLite database

Android 15 introduces new SQLite APIs that expose superior options from the underlying SQLite engine that concentrate on particular efficiency points that may manifest in apps.

Builders ought to seek the advice of greatest practices for SQLite efficiency to get essentially the most out of their SQLite database, particularly when working with massive databases or when operating latency-sensitive queries.

    • Row counts and IDs: new APIs have been added to retrieve the depend of modified rows or the final inserted row ID with out issuing an extra question. getLastChangedRowCount() will return the variety of rows that have been inserted, up to date, or deleted by the newest SQL assertion throughout the present transaction, whereas getTotalChangedRowCount() will return the depend on the present connection. getLastInsertRowId() will return the “rowid” of the final row to be inserted on the present connection.
    • Uncooked statements: concern a uncooked SQlite assertion, bypassing comfort wrappers and any extra processing overhead that they might incur.

Media refinements

Every launch of Android focuses on enhancing the media expertise.

HDR Headroom Management

side by side images of SDR content

The picture on the left exhibits a view with SDR content material. The picture on the suitable simulates perceived headroom points with SDR and HDR blended content material, which we will keep away from by setting the specified HDR headroom.

Android 15 chooses HDR headroom that’s acceptable for the underlying machine capabilities and bit-depth of the panel; for pages which have plenty of SDR content material similar to a messaging app displaying a single HDR thumbnail, this will find yourself adversely influencing the perceived brightness of the SDR content material. Android 15 lets you management the HDR headroom with setDesiredHdrHeadroom to strike a steadiness between SDR and HDR content material.

Loudness Management

moving image of Droid wearing headphones and bopping his head rhythmically

Android 15 introduces assist for the CTA-2075 loudness normal that will help you keep away from audio loudness inconsistencies and guarantee customers do not must always alter quantity when switching between content material. The system leverages identified traits of the output units (headphones, speaker) together with loudness metadata out there in AAC audio content material to intelligently alter the audio loudness and dynamic vary compression ranges.

To allow this function, you might want to guarantee loudness metadata is offered in your AAC content material and allow the platform function in your app. For this, you instantiate a LoudnessCodecController object by calling its create manufacturing facility technique with the audio session ID from the related AudioTrack; this robotically begins making use of audio updates. You may cross an OnLoudnessCodecUpdateListener to change/filter loudness parameters earlier than they’re utilized on the MediaCodec.

// media incorporates metadata of sort MPEG_4 OR MPEG_D
val mediaCodec = ...
val audioTrack = AudioTrack.Builder()
// create new loudness controller that applies the parameters to the MediaCodec
attempt {
   val lcController = LoudnessCodecController.create(mSessionId)
   // begins making use of audio updates for every added MediaCodec

AndroidX media3 ExoPlayer will quickly be up to date to leverage LoudnessCodecController APIs for a seamless app integration.

Use Spatializer as an alternative of Virtualizer

Android 12 included the Spatializer class, which permits querying the capabilities and habits of sound spatialization on the machine. In Android 15, we’re deprecating the Virtualizer class; as an alternative use AudioAttributes.Builder.setSpatializationBehavior to characterize the way you need your content material to be performed when spatialization is supported.

AndroidX media3 ExoPlayer 1.0 permits spatial audio by default for multichannel audio when the machine helps it. See the weblog submit and documentation for extra data, together with APIs to manage the function.

Person Expertise

AutomaticZenRules enable apps to customise Consideration Administration (Do Not Disturb) guidelines and determine when to activate/deactivate them. Android 15 vastly enhances these guidelines with the purpose of enhancing the consumer expertise. It does this by:

    • Including sorts to AutomaticZenRule, permitting the system to use particular remedy to some guidelines
    • Including an icon to AutomaticZenRule, serving to to make the modes be extra recognizable
    • Including a triggerDescription string to AutomaticZenRule that describes the circumstances on which the rule ought to develop into lively for the consumer
    • Added ZenDeviceEffects to AutomaticZenRule, permitting guidelines to set off issues like grayscale show, evening mode, or dimming the wallpaper

Habits adjustments

As a result of backward compatibility is so vital to us, we attempt to restrict impactful habits adjustments, however some are inevitable.

Elegant fonts in all places

As soon as your app targets Android 15, the elegantTextHeight TextView attribute turns into true by default, changing the compact font utilized by default with some scripts which have massive vertical metrics with one that’s way more readable. The compact font was launched to stop breaking layouts; Android 13 prevents many of those breakages by permitting the textual content format to stretch the vertical peak using the fallbackLineSpacing attribute. In Android 15, the compact font nonetheless stays within the system, so your app can set elegantTextHeight to false to get the identical habits as earlier than, however it’s unlikely to be supported in upcoming releases. So, in case your utility helps the next scripts: Arabic, Lao, Myanmar, Tamil, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Odia, Telugu or Thai, please take a look at your functions by setting elegantTextHeight to true.

Examples and screenshots

Default habits as of Android 14

Default behavior as of Android 14

Default habits for functions that concentrate on Android 15

Default behavior as of Android 14

App compatibility

Android 15 release timeline

To offer you extra time to plan for app compatibility work, we’re letting our Platform Stability milestone effectively upfront.

At this milestone, we’ll ship closing SDK/NDK APIs and in addition closing inner APIs and app-facing system behaviors. We’re anticipating to succeed in Platform Stability in June 2024, and from that point you’ll have a number of months earlier than the official launch to do your closing testing. The discharge timeline particulars are right here.

The Developer Preview has every part you might want to attempt the Android 15 options, take a look at your apps, and provides us suggestions. You may get began at this time by flashing a system picture onto a Pixel 6, 7, or 8 sequence machine, together with the Pixel Fold and Pixel Pill. We aren’t providing sideload photos for Developer Preview 2. For those who don’t have a Pixel machine, you may use the 64-bit system photos with the Android Emulator in Android Studio. For those who’ve already put in Android 15 Developer Preview 1, you must get an over-the-air replace to Android 15 Developer Preview 2.

For the most effective improvement expertise with Android 15, we advocate that you just use the newest preview of Android Studio Jellyfish (or newer Jellyfish+ variations). When you’re arrange, listed here are among the issues you must do:

    • Attempt the brand new options and APIs – your suggestions is crucial in the course of the early a part of the developer preview. Report points in our tracker on the suggestions web page.
    • Check your present app for compatibility – be taught whether or not your app is affected by adjustments in Android 15; set up your app onto a tool or emulator operating Android 15 and extensively take a look at it.

We’ll replace the preview system photos and SDK frequently all through the Android 15 launch cycle. This preview launch is for builders solely and never supposed for each day or client use, so we’re making it out there by handbook obtain solely. When you’ve manually put in a preview construct, you’ll robotically get future updates over-the-air for all later previews and Betas. Learn extra right here.

For those who intend to maneuver from the Android 14 QPR Beta program to the Android 15 Developer Preview program and do not need to must wipe your machine, we advocate that you just transfer to Developer Preview 2 now. In any other case chances are you’ll run into time intervals the place the Android 14 Beta could have a newer construct date which is able to forestall you from going on to the Android 15 Developer Preview with out doing an information wipe.

As we attain our Beta releases, we’ll be inviting customers to attempt Android 15 as effectively, and we’ll open up enrollment for the Android Beta program at the moment. For now, please observe that the Android Beta program just isn’t but out there for Android 15.

For full data, go to the Android 15 developer website.

Java and OpenJDK are emblems or registered emblems of Oracle and/or its associates.

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