Thursday, July 18, 2024

System onboarding to AWS IoT utilizing Digital Non-public Cloud endpoints

System onboarding to AWS IoT utilizing Digital Non-public Cloud endpoints


Introduction

In case you function safe personal networks—akin to an meeting line’s operational know-how (OT) community at a manufacturing unit or authorities company­—and intend to attach your units to AWS, then it is advisable to use X.509 consumer certificates for authenticating requests to AWS companies—all whereas staying throughout the Digital Non-public Cloud (VPC). On this publish, we are going to show how you can use the brand new functionality, VPC endpoint (VPCe) for AWS IoT Core credential supplier to handle element deployments into AWS IoT Greengrass-powered gateways operating on personal networks. Equally, we may also show how you can develop and join units that use AWS IoT System SDK and require change of X.509 consumer certificates for safety tokens to work together with different AWS companies.

AWS IoT Core is a completely managed service that helps connectivity for billions of units. Gadgets and software program purchasers that hook up with AWS IoT Core depend on X.509 certificates for authentication. Nonetheless, different AWS companies depend on safety tokens to authenticate API calls. To keep away from hardcoding credentials and/or tokens within the purchasers, AWS IoT Core offers AWS IoT Core credential supplier endpoint. This endpoint permits purchasers, like AWS IoT Greengrass parts, to change their X.509 certificates as safety tokens to work together with different AWS companies. Furthermore, with AWS IoT Core’s credential supplier endpoint functionality, you may prolong your operational networks to a VPC in AWS through Digital Non-public Community (VPN), thus eliminating the necessity in your gear to make use of public web entry to succeed in AWS IoT Core’s credential supplier.

How prospects are benefiting from the brand new functionality

VR-Yhtymä Oy is a public sector Finnish railway that operates 250 long-distance and 800 commuter rail companies every single day. VR-Yhtymä Oy is utilizing VPC for personal communication between trains and AWS companies.

“With VPC endpoints for AWS IoT Core credential supplier, we are able to use X.509 consumer certificates to get credentials for accessing AWS companies, akin to Amazon S3 or Lambda, with out leaving our personal VPC subnets.” mentioned Tomi Uutela, Head of Digital Operations at VR-Yhtymä Oy.

Utopus Insights is a data-driven vitality analytics Software program as a Service (SaaS) firm that develops international digital options to speed up the mixing of renewable vitality into the trendy grid. Utopus Insights is utilizing VPC for personal communication between AWS IoT Greengrass, AWS IoT Core, and different AWS companies.

“Integrating AWS IoT Core and AWS IoT Greengrass VPC Endpoints will carry a number of advantages to our operations. Firstly, it’ll simplify our infrastructure structure by eliminating the necessity for an extra proxy server. This can streamline our setup and cut back upkeep overhead. VPC Endpoints may also improve safety by enabling personal connections between our VPC and AWS IoT Greengrass. This ensures that our IoT units and information stay remoted from the general public web, decreasing the danger of unauthorized entry.” mentioned Gopi Valiyaveedu, Platform Engineering Supervisor, Utopus Insights, Inc.

Pre-requisites

  • Administrator entry to an AWS account
  • Primary AWS CLI expertise
  • Primary AWS IoT Greengrass and AWS IoT Core information

Resolution structure

The next structure represents a typical IoT infrastructure the place units utilizing on-premises operational networks hook up with AWS via a personal community.

Walkthrough

On this walkthrough you’ll discover ways to use AWS IoT Core credential supplier to allow a VPCe connection both for AWS IoT Greengrass or IoT units developed utilizing the AWS IoT System SDK. 

Word that you have to implement the part “Create VPC endpoints” for each instances.

AWS IoT Greengrass

Create VPC endpoints

To ascertain an edge-to-cloud communication hyperlink fully over VPC, you have to first setup AWS Direct Join between your on-premises community infrastructure and your AWS VPC. For detailed implementation, please confer with AWS Direct Join developer information.

As soon as AWS Direct Join is setup, there are 3 VPC Endpoints required for an IoT gateway to be provisioned, managed, and synchronized (element deployments) as an AWS IoT Greengrass gateway.

  • AWS IoT Greengrass
  • AWS IoT Core information
  • AWS IoT Core credential supplier

The AWS IoT Greengrass endpoint (com.amazonaws.[region].greengrass) is used to handle parts, deployments, and units from the AWS IoT Greengrass cloud service. Authentication and authorization with this endpoint are carried out utilizing X.509 certificates as described in System authentication and authorization for AWS IoT Greengrass.

The AWS IoT Core information endpoint (com.amazonaws.[region].iot.information) is used for interactions between AWS IoT Greengrass parts and AWS IoT Core by publishing/subscribing to AWS IoT Core MQTT dealer. Authentication and authorization with this endpoint can be carried out utilizing X.509 certificates.

The AWS IoT Core credential supplier endpoint (com.amazonaws.[region].iot.credentials) is used to speak with different AWS companies that don’t help X.509 authentication and authorization, akin to Amazon Easy Storage Service (Amazon S3) and Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR). In both case, the units developed utilizing the AWS IoT SDK or an AWS IoT Greengrass element, will name the AWS IoT Core credential supplier endpoint utilizing the X.509 certificates to authenticate and get licensed. The endpoint will then concern a short lived safety token for the consumer to make use of within the name to the companies not supporting X.509.

Calls to Amazon S3 and Amazon ECR are required throughout AWS IoT Greengrass element deployments as described within the following sequence diagram. The AWS IoT Greengrass element may also require a safety token if it makes use of AWS SDKs to speak with different cloud companies not supporting X.509 certificates authentication and authorization.

Then, to perform an end-to-end VPCe communication, you have to create these 3 VPC endpoints pointing to a number of personal subnets chosen to route visitors to and from AWS.

Every VPC endpoint will get an Web Protocol (IP) handle, one for every personal subnet the place the VPCe is created. We advocate deciding on no less than 2 subnets for prime availability.

You should utilize the next AWS CLI instructions to create the three VPC endpoints passing your personal subnet as parameters or use the AWS Console to create them.

All following instructions are for us-east-1 area.

  1. Create VPC endpoints
aws ec2 create-vpc-endpoint --vpc-id <YOUR VPCID> --vpc-endpoint-type Interface --service-name com.amazonaws.us-east-1.iot.credentials | jq -r ".VpcEndpoint.VpcEndpointId"
aws ec2 create-vpc-endpoint --vpc-id <YOUR VPCID> --vpc-endpoint-type Interface --service-name com.amazonaws.us-east-1.greengrass | jq -r ".VpcEndpoint.VpcEndpointId"
aws ec2 create-vpc-endpoint --vpc-id <YOUR VPCID> --vpc-endpoint-type Interface --service-name com.amazonaws.us-east-1.iot.information | jq -r ".VpcEndpoint.VpcEndpointId"

  1. Get safety teams related to the VPC endpoints

Utilizing the VPC endpoints IDs returned by the instructions applied within the step 1, apply the next command to get the safety teams related to them.

aws ec2 describe-vpc-endpoints --vpc-endpoint-ids <.iot.credentials VpcEndpointId> | jq -r ".VpcEndpoints[0].Teams[0].GroupId"
aws ec2 describe-vpc-endpoints --vpc-endpoint-ids <.greengrass VpcEndpointId> | jq -r ".VpcEndpoints[0].Teams[0].GroupId"
aws ec2 describe-vpc-endpoints --vpc-endpoint-ids <.iot.information VpcEndpointId> | jq -r ".VpcEndpoints[0].Teams[0].GroupId"

The safety groupId will most probably be the identical for all of your VPC endpoints. If that’s the case, you may run steps 3 and 4 simply as soon as.

  1. Add ingress rule to the safety teams

Utilizing the Safety Teams IDs returned by the instructions within the step 2, run the next command to permit ingress communication from the IP vary the place your AWS IoT Greengrass gadget will likely be operating.

On this weblog publish, for simplicity, we permit ingress from anyplace (0.0.0.0), however we advocate you restrict the ingress to the CidrIp the place your AWS IoT Greengrass gadget will likely be deployed.

aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress --group-id <.iot.credentials GroupID> --protocol tcp --cidr 0.0.0.0/0 --port 443
aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress --group-id <.greengrass GroupID> --protocol tcp --cidr 0.0.0.0/0 --port 443
aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress --group-id <.iot.information GroupID> --protocol tcp --cidr 0.0.0.0/0 --port 443

  1. Add egress rule to the safety teams

Utilizing the Safety Teams IDs returned by the instructions executed in step 2, run the next command to permit egress communication to the IP vary the place your AWS IoT Greengrass gadget will likely be operating.

On this weblog publish, for simplicity, we permit egress to anyplace (0.0.0.0), however we advocate you restrict the egress to the CidrIp the place your Greengrass gadget will likely be deployed.

aws ec2 authorize-security-group-egress --group-id <.iot.credentials GroupID> --protocol tcp --cidr 0.0.0.0/0 --port 443
aws ec2 authorize-security-group-egress --group-id <.greengrass GroupID> --protocol tcp --cidr 0.0.0.0/0 --port 443
aws ec2 authorize-security-group-egress --group-id <.iot.information GroupID> --protocol tcp --cidr 0.0.0.0/0 --port 443

  1. Add subnets to the VPC endpoints

As soon as the VPC endpoints have being created and configured, you may observe the Amazon Digital Public Cloud documentation so as to add or take away subnets to the VPC endpoint. We advocate configuring no less than 2 subnets in every endpoint for HA.

  1. Allow DNS help for the VPC

Run the next instructions to allow DNS help within the VPC the place the VPC endpoints have been created.

aws ec2 modify-vpc-attribute --vpc-id <YOUR VPCID> --enable-dns-support "{"Worth":true}"
aws ec2 modify-vpc-attribute --vpc-id <YOUR VPCID> --enable-dns-hostnames "{"Worth":true}"

  1. Create personal hosted zone in Amazon Route 53

Subsequent step is to configure a personal hosted zone in Amazon Route 53.

First create a hosted zone for every VPC endpoint.

echo '{
"VPCRegion":"us-east-1",
"VPCId":"<YOUR VPCID>"
}' > vpc.json

echo '{
"Remark": "PrivateZoneForVPCe",
"PrivateZone": true
}' > hostedzoneconfig.json

aws route53 create-hosted-zone --name credentials.iot.us-east-1.amazonaws.com --vpc file://vpc.json --caller-reference <UUID> --hosted-zone-config file://hostedzoneconfig.json |jq -r ".HostedZone.Id"|sed 's?^.*hostedzone/??g'
aws route53 create-hosted-zone --name iot.us-east-1.amazonaws.com --vpc file://vpc.json --caller-reference <UUID> --hosted-zone-config file://hostedzoneconfig.json |jq -r ".HostedZone.Id"|sed 's?^.*hostedzone/??g'

You should utilize the next on-line device to generate the required UUIDs https://www.uuidgenerator.web/version1

You then get:

a. VPC endpoints addresses

aws iot describe-endpoint --endpoint-type iot:CredentialProvider | jq -r '.endpointAddress'
aws iot describe-endpoint --endpoint-type iot:Knowledge-ATS | jq -r '.endpointAddress'

b. VPC endpoints DNS names

aws ec2 describe-vpc-endpoints --vpc-endpoint-ids <.iot.credentials VpcEndpointId FROM STEP 1> | jq -r ".VpcEndpoints[0].DnsEntries[0].DnsName"
aws ec2 describe-vpc-endpoints --vpc-endpoint-ids <.iot.information VpcEndpointId FROM STEP 1> | jq -r ".VpcEndpoints[0].DnsEntries[0].DnsName"

c. Hosted Zone IDs

aws ec2 describe-vpc-endpoints --vpc-endpoint-ids <.iot.credentials VpcEndpointId FROM STEP 1> | jq -r ".VpcEndpoints[0].DnsEntries[0].HostedZoneId"
aws ec2 describe-vpc-endpoints --vpc-endpoint-ids <.iot.information VpcEndpointId FROM STEP 1> | jq -r ".VpcEndpoints[0].DnsEntries[0].HostedZoneId"

With the knowledge from sections 7.a, 7.b, and seven.c, you may create the DNS file within the Non-public Hosted Zones.

Credential endpoint:

echo '{
"Remark": "Route visitors from Credential default endpoint to VPCe.",
"Modifications": [
{
"Action": "UPSERT",
"ResourceRecordSet": {
"Name": "<Credentials Endpoint Address from 7.a",
"Type": "A",
"AliasTarget": {
"HostedZoneId": "<Credentials Endpoint Hosted Zone ID from 7.c>",
"DNSName": "<Credentials Endpoint DNS name from 7.b>",
"EvaluateTargetHealth": true
}
}
}
]
}' > credentialvpce.json

aws route53 change-resource-record-sets --hosted-zone-id <Hosted Zone Id of your Route53 hosted zone> --change-batch file://credentialvpce.json

IMPORTANT

HostedZoneId within the credentialvpce.json is the ID you’ll find within the credentials VPCe console definition between parenthesis beneath the DNS Names part. It is usually returned by the command “aws ec2 describe-vpc-endpoints —vpc-endpoint-ids <.iot.credentials VpcEndpointId FROM STEP 1> ……” from part 7.c

–hosted-zone-id parameter within the AWS CLI command is the Hosted Zone Id returned by the command “aws route53 create-hosted-zone —title credentials.us-east-1.iot.amazonaws.com …….” You could find this ID additionally within the Amazon Route 53 console, by deciding on your hosted zone and navigating to the “Hosted zone particulars” part.

Knowledge endpoint:

echo '{
"Remark": "Route visitors from IoT Core default information endpoint to VPCe.",
"Modifications": [
{
"Action": "UPSERT",
"ResourceRecordSet": {
"Name": "<Data Endpoint Address from 7.a",
"Type": "A",
"AliasTarget": {
"HostedZoneId": "<Data Endpoint Hosted Zone ID from 7.c>",
"DNSName": "<Data Endpoint DNS name from 7.b>",
"EvaluateTargetHealth": true
}
}
}
]
}' > datavpce.json

aws route53 change-resource-record-sets --hosted-zone-id <Hosted Zone Id of your Route53 hosted zone> --change-batch file://datavpce.json

Deploy and join your AWS IoT Greengrass core gadget

Now you can observe any of the supported strategies to configure your AWS IoT Greengrass core gadget. On this situation, you’re most probably working in an setting with out web entry to obtain packages into the machine the place you’ll set up AWS IoT Greengrass nucleus. We advocate following Set up with guide provisioning.

Earlier than operating the set up command:

sudo -E java -Droot="/greengrass/v2" -Dlog.retailer=FILE 
-jar ./GreengrassInstaller/lib/Greengrass.jar 
--init-config ./GreengrassInstaller/config.yaml 
--component-default-user ggc_user:ggc_group 
--setup-system-service true

You need to test your “./GreengrassInstaller/config.yaml” appears to be like like the next:

system:
certificateFilePath: "/greengrass/v2/[your thing cert]"
privateKeyPath: "/greengrass/v2/[your thing private key]"
rootCaPath: "/greengrass/v2/AmazonRootCA1.pem"
rootpath: "/greengrass/v2"
thingName: "[your thing name]"
companies:
aws.greengrass.Nucleus:
componentType: "NUCLEUS"
model: "[your NUCLEUS version]"
configuration:
awsRegion: "us-east-1"
iotRoleAlias: "[your GreengrassCoreTokenExchangeRoleAlias]"
iotDataEndpoint: "[the 'A' record created in Route53 for IoT Data Enpoint]"
iotCredEndpoint: "[the 'A' record created in Route53 for IoT Credential Endpoin]"
mqtt:
port: 443
greengrassDataPlaneEndpoint: "iotdata"
greengrassDataPlanePort: 443

Validate you’re utilizing VPCe

To validate you’re utilizing the VPCe and never traversing the general public web, run the next command from the AWS IoT Greengrass core machine:

nslookup [the 'A' record created in Route53 for IoT Credential Endpoin]
nslookup [the 'A' record created in Route53 for IoT Data Enpoint]

The IP addresses returned by the above instructions ought to be within the vary of the subnets related together with your VPC endpoints.

Then, you may run the identical instructions out of your laptop computer. It is best to get public IPs for the endpoints.

AWS IoT units

After you might have applied the steps in part “Create VPC endpoints,” it’s also possible to use AWS IoT Core credential supplier via VPCe, immediately from AWS IoT Core issues operating in your VPC. To check this feature, observe the subsequent steps.

  1. Observe the step-by-step wizard within the console to create a single factor.

  1. Observe the Authorizing direct calls to AWS companies utilizing AWS IoT Core credential supplier documentation to create the required roles and insurance policies, and fix them to the certificates created within the earlier step.
  1. Transfer the connect_device_package.zip file created throughout the wizard execution into the gadget the place you’re planning to make use of the AWS IoT System SDK. For testing this, you should use an Amazon EC2 occasion. In any case, affirm the gadget or EC2 occasion is linked to a community or subnet throughout the VPC the place the VPC endpoint was created. You possibly can validate this operating the next instructions from the gadget or EC2 occasion.
nslookup [the 'A' record created in Route53 for IoT Credential Endpoin]
nslookup [the 'A' record created in Route53 for IoT Data Enpoint]

The IP addresses returned by the above instructions ought to be within the vary of the subnets related together with your VPCe endpoints.

  1. Run the next CURL command from the Authorizing direct calls to AWS companies utilizing AWS IoT Core credential supplier documentation, pointing to the “A” file created in Amazon Route 53 within the credentials.iot.us-east-1.amazonaws.com personal zone. It’ll seem like your_aws_account_specific_prefix.credentials.iot.us-east-1.amazonaws.com
curl --cert your certificates --key your gadget certificates key pair -H "x-amzn-iot-thingname: your factor title" --cacert AmazonRootCA1.pem https://your endpoint /role-aliases/your function alias/credentials

Conclusion

With the brand new VPCe help for AWS IoT Core credential supplier, now you can have end-to-end VPC communication between units—both immediately via AWS IoT System SDKs or AWS IoT Greengrass—while not having to arrange community proxies and complicated firewall configurations. This simplified community infrastructure might help you cut back operational overhead prices and enhance the safety posture of your resolution. To study extra, go to AWS IoT Greengrass and interface VPC endpoints (AWS PrivateLink)


Concerning the authors

Vladi Salomon is a Principal IoT Knowledge Architect with Amazon Net Companies. He has 7+ years of expertise in IoT structure in several vertical like IIoT, Good House, Good Metropolis and Mining in addition to information warehousing and large information platform. Within the newest years he obtained focus in how you can carry AI to IoT via scalable MLOps platforms. As a member of AWS Skilled Companies, He works with prospects of various scale and industries architecting and implementing a wide range of end-to-end IoT options.
Victor Lesau is a Sr. Technical Product Supervisor at Amazon Net Companies. He focuses on product technique, roadmap planning, enterprise evaluation, buyer engagement, and different product administration areas of AWS IoT Core, AWS IoT Id, and good residence initiatives.
Ben Omer is a Sr. Technical Product Supervisor at Amazon Net Companies. He works with IoT gadget companies and merchandise together with FreeRTOS, AWS IoT Greengrass, and KVS, with a deal with roadmap planning, characteristic exploration, and buyer engagement.

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